Artful Intersection Community Paint Day

Installation of the Artful Intersection planned for the top of Cabbage Hill will commence on Sept. 11, followed by a Community Paint Day on Sept. 18. Motorists should be advised of street closures in the area on both days.

September 11 | 7 a.m. to 4 p.m.

– W. Vine St. at E. Filbert St.

– W. Strawberry St. between Vine St. and St. Joseph St.

September 18 | 7 a.m. to 4 p.m.

– W. Vine St. at E. Filbert St., and between St. Joseph St. to W. Strawberry St./Mulberry St. intersection

– W. Strawberry St. at High St., and between Vine St. and St. Joseph St.

– S. Mulberry St. at King St.

Residents living on W. Vine St. may use the St. Joseph’s Church parking lot as a detour thru to St. Joseph St. between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. on both days of closure. All motorists should follow posted detours on both days of closure.

A street mural created by artist Fern Dannis in partnership with Peter Barber of Two Dudes Painting Company using input from the community will help improve pedestrian safety and enhance public space at the intersection of W. Strawberry St., W. Vine St. and S. Mulberry St.

This five-way intersection is a sometimes-confusing space integral to neighborhood and city-wide traffic circulation. The artful intersection is expected to expand the perceived public space to encompass the street; increase awareness and safety of alternative forms of transportation, and boost community development.

The project team welcomes the community to attend the Community Paint Day on September 18. Those wishing to volunteer can sign up at here.

Dannis and Barber were selected by a project team, including site neighbors, arts professionals and a Public Art Advisory Board (PAAB) member.

This project is part of the Bloomberg Foundation’s Asphalt Art Initiative grant program, which embraces art as an effective and relatively low-cost strategy to activate their streets. The City of Lancaster is one of 16 cities to receive this grant, in partnership with SoWe, a resident-led community initiative of Tenfold (formerly Tabor/LHOP).

For more information about Artful Intersections and the project process, visit engage.cityoflancasterpa.com/en/projects/artful-intersections-cabbage-hill.

SoWe residents continue to shape SouthWest neighborhood’s future

Follow-up survey launches to track SoWe initiative’s progress and future planning

SoWe, an initiative of Tenfold, announced the launch of a follow-up survey that will give Southwest Lancaster residents an opportunity to share their feedback on current neighborhood needs, resource gaps, and the impact of SoWe investments that have occurred since the original survey and SoWe initiative was launched in 2016. This will give the SoWe initiative the opportunity to track progress made over the past five years and shape planning efforts for the next five years.

The follow-up survey will mirror the original survey that was conducted as part of the Wells Fargo Regional Foundation Neighborhood Planning Grant in 2016. Millersville University’s Center for Public Scholarship and Social Change will work with the SoWe initiative to administer the follow-up survey and complete the data analysis.

SoWe residents will receive the survey via a mailing and other activities that are planned over the next couple months. SoWe residents can complete the survey by clicking here. SoWe residents are strongly encouraged to participate, as their feedback will be used to set the vision, strategy and objectives for SoWe neighborhood investment over the next five years.

Since inception, the SoWe initiative has leveraged over $5.8 million dollars to support the SoWe neighborhood and its residents. By listening to neighborhood feedback, the SoWe initiative has invested in affordable housing, public parks and street scape, youth programing and education, community safety, neighborhood connections and economic opportunity. Major successes of the SoWe initiative include the renovation of Culliton Park, the establishment of Price Elementary as a Community School, renovation of neighborhood housing for affordable homeownership and rental opportunities, investments into private housing to include an Affordable Home Repair program and the Façade Improvement Program.

Strawberry Hill Artful Intersection: Community Engagement Part 1 Recap

A big thank you to all the residents who came out to Two Dudes Painting Co. for the Strawberry Hill Artful Intersection Community Engagement Session. If you were not able to attend, do not worry, here is a recap with meeting materials and videos!

The session started with a brief Powerpoint presentation by Fern Dannis with examples of other asphalt art projects, project scope, and timeline. Jim Gerhart outlined the historical context of this intersection.

Participants were given site maps and tracing paper to make notes or sketches, along with a handout of suggested ideas.

Project Engagement Timeline:

May 28 – Community Survey launched on engage.cityoflancasterpa.com.

June 3 – Mini Artist Workshop Session #1, @Two Dudes from 5:00pm – 7:00pm

June 17 – Mini Artist Workshop Session #2, Culliton Park from 5:00 – 7:00pm

June 22Mayor’s Neighborhood Week Event at Culliton ParkProject Outreach

June 26 – Mini Artist Workshop Session #3, @ St. Joseph’s school parking lot, from 10am – 12pm

June 28 – Community Survey Closes

July 16 – Artist Team to Present Mural Concepts for Feedback

August 6 – Mural design Finalized

September - Project installation - September 11th, Rain Date Sept. 18th

Strawberry Hill Artful Intersection

Hello SoWe ! Let’s make some art.

The City of Lancaster is working with local artist, Fern Dannis, along with Two Dudes Painting Company to create an artful intersection at the  Strawberry Hill intersection.  This project is part of the Bloomberg Foundation’s Asphalt Art Initiative to create street murals and other creative interventions to improve pedestrian safety and enhance public spaces.

The intersection of West Strawberry Street, West Vine Street, and South Mulberry Street sits at the top of Cabbage Hill. This five-way intersection is a confusing space for pedestrians and vehicles and is integral to the neighborhood and city-wide traffic circulation. Public engagement is beginning  June 3rd, with the artwork being designed over the summer. The final application of paint-to-asphalt is set for September 11, 2021.

Community Engagement Sessions dates are below and are open to the public! Join us!
June 3rd 5:30 – 7:00 at Two Dudes Painting Co.– 750 Poplar St. Lancaster, PA 17603
June 26th 10:00 – 12:00 at 47 S. Mulberry St. Parking Lot

Cant make the community events but still want to provide feedback? Fill out this survey.

What is an artful intersection?
Artful Intersections connect artists and neighbors to work together to create street murals in their neighborhoods. The street murals serve as a reflection of the life and culture of the neighborhood; it is expected to expand the perceived public space to encompass the street; increase awareness and safety of alternative forms of transportation, and boost community development.

To learn more about the project, please visit https://engage.cityoflancasterpa.com. We are asking residents to respond to a community survey to provide input on pedestrian safety and the artwork for the intersection.

To view similar asphalt art projects, visit the Bloomberg Asphalt Art Initiative Website https://asphaltart.bloomberg.org/.

The Search for the Oldest House on Cabbage Hill

Jim Gerhart, May 2021

Cabbage Hill was nothing but forest, farmland, and pasture until 1762 when Bethelstown was laid out with 66 building lots on the first two blocks of what would become Manor and High Streets. Bethelstown grew slowly; by 1815, more than 50 years after its founding, there were only about 25-30 houses on its 66 lots. Nearly all of the houses were one-story houses made of logs and rough-sawn wood.

Most of the original houses on Manor and High were later replaced by two- and three-story brick houses built in the second half of the nineteenth century. However, at least one of the charter-member houses of old Bethelstown lasted well into the twentieth century before being razed—a log house with weatherboarding that used to stand at 442 Manor before it was taken down in 1963 to make room for a parking lot.

Which raises the question: Was 442 Manor the only survivor of the original 25-30 one-story houses from old Bethelstown, or is it possible that more of the original one-story houses are still present, hiding behind modern vinyl siding and form-stone? Most of the historical sources needed to answer this question are available online. The only one not completely online is county tax lists, and the staff of LancasterHistory was kind enough to supply the lists for the years not yet online.

Using Google Maps, I was surprised to discover that 27 one-story houses are still present in the 400 and 500 blocks of Manor and High. Of the 27, nine are single houses, fourteen are in seven house pairs, and four are grouped together in a connected row of houses. Using newspaper articles, city directories, street maps, property deeds, and other sources, I was able to determine that 20 of the 27 current one-story houses in the first two blocks of Manor and High were built in 1850 or later, and therefore are not old enough to be original houses from old Bethelstown. The remaining seven possibilities—two on Manor and five on High—were investigated in more detail.

The one-story log house at 433 High (right) and the one-story
frame house at 435 High (left). Author’s photo, 2021.

Of the seven houses that predate 1850, five were found to have been built in the 1840s, leaving just two—433 and 435 High Street—that had the potential to be old enough to be original Bethelstown houses. A couple of key deeds and tax records show that these two one-story houses, which are next-door neighbors on the northwest side of the 400 block of High, were built on Bethelstown lot 28, and that both houses were already present in 1840. The deeds show that 433 is a log house, adding to the potential that it could have been built quite a bit before 1840.

Making things a little more challenging, detailed maps and city directories do not exist before 1840, and many pre-1840 deeds that would be helpful seem to have gone unrecorded or have been lost. Consequently, tax lists took on a more important role in tracking these two houses before 1840. The continuity from year to year in the amount of ground rent paid for the lot, as well as the assessed value of the houses, enabled me to trace 433 and 435 High back in time before 1840 with some success. Also helpful were occasional notes written by the tax assessor when the properties were bought or sold.[1] 

The result is that “YES” is my answer to the question of whether any of the 25-30 houses from the pre-1815 days of old Bethelstown have survived. The weight of the evidence points to the one-story log house at 433 High as the oldest surviving house on the Hill. It appears to have been built no later than about 1801, and possibly earlier. Not surprisingly, because they are neighboring houses on the same original lot, the one-story frame house at 435 High also is old, having been built about 1814. I believe these two are the oldest surviving houses on Cabbage Hill—older by at least a couple decades than Catharine Yeates’ 1838 summer cottage at 613 Fremont, previously considered the oldest survivor. 

Part of county tax lists for 1840 that shows the properties on which Peter Bier III paid taxes. Note the second listing for Bier, which is for two houses on one lot in Bethelstown. These houses are now 433 and 435 High Street. Bier III paid ground rent of seven shillings on the lot, and the two houses together were valued at $360.

So, who built these historic houses at 433 and 435 High, and who were their early owners? The early history of the houses involves a couple generations of the Bier family. Peter Bier, Sr. (1701-1781) was a German immigrant who arrived in this country in 1748, bringing with him a teenaged son, Peter, Jr. (1732-1801), and settling in Lancaster about 1760. Peter, Jr. was a cordwainer (shoemaker) living in the southeast part of the city, but owning several other houses and significant acreage, including on the Hill. Peter, Jr. married Elizabeth Buch in 1760 at First Reformed Church, and they had a son, Peter III (1763-1843). Peter III also was a shoemaker, but later in life a farmer. Peter III and his wife Catharine had several children, including a fourth-generation Peter (1797-1849) who became a doctor.

Peter Bier, Jr., who died in 1801, appears to have acquired Bethelstown lot 28 shortly before his death. Peter, Jr. may have built the house now at 433 High as soon as he acquired the lot, or the lot may have already had the house on it when he acquired it. If Peter, Jr. built it, the house dates to about 1800-01; if lot 28 already had a house on it when he bought it, the house dates to the late 1700s and was built by an unknown first owner. I suspect the house was already there when Peter, Jr. bought the lot, because he died within six months, and probably would not have had the time to build a house. This means the house likely was built in the late 1700s.

As part of Peter, Jr.’s estate, lot 28 and the house on it was inherited by his widow Elizabeth. She may have lived in the house for a short time, but mostly she rented the house to a series of tenants, including, in the years immediately following Peter, Jr.’s death, to John Williams, a young mason who decades later would end up owning most of the land in the southern half of Cabbage Hill. Also, a few records suggest that John Drepperd may have lived in the house in the early 1810s. Drepperd was a gunmaker whose father and grandfather were both famous gunmakers supplying rifles for troops in the Revolutionary War.

Sometime about 1814, the widow Bier (or her son Peter III) seems to have added a frame house to lot 28 (now 435 High). Both houses were occupied by tenants for the next 10 years or so, but then, about 1824, Elizabeth transferred the deed for the lot and houses to her son Peter III. Peter III continued to rent the houses to tenants up until 1841 when he sold lot 28 and both houses to Jacob Liphart, a real-estate investor who lived in Marietta.

Map of part of the 400 block of High Street in 1850, showing the one-story houses  at 433 (owned by John Zimmerer) and 435 (owned by Robert Boas).  From Moody and Bridgens.

Liphart rented the houses out for a short while, and then split the 62-foot-wide lot in half, with the northeast half containing the one-story log house now numbered 433 High, and the southwest half containing the one-story frame house now numbered 435 High. In 1844, Liphart sold the half with 433 to John Zimmerer, a middle-aged tailor and his wife Sarah. Earlier, in 1842, Liphart had sold the half with 435 to Robert Boas, a middle-aged laborer, his wife Franciska, and their young son. Both Zimmerer and Boas were German immigrants, and both families lived in the houses they had bought, each of which was valued at $220 in 1845.

Part of  1857 deed (Book I, Volume 14, Page 478) with mention of the log house at what is now 433 High.

John Zimmerer died in 1857, and his wife Sarah sold the log house at 433 to Jacob and Susan Glassbrenner for $300. The Glassbrenner family lived in the house for a few years and then rented it out to tenants. After Jacob died, his widow Susan, who had moved to Philadelphia, sold the house to William Lebkicher in 1906.

Robert and Franciska Boas lived in the frame house at 435 High for many years. Sometime in the 1860s, they added the two-story brick house next door at 437 High, squeezing it into the remaining part of their lot. Boas and his wife moved into the larger 437 and rented 435 out to tenants until Boas’s death. In 1881, the frame house at 435 High and its larger brick companion at 437 were sold as part of Boas’s estate for $1,000 to John Kirsch. In 1920, after Kirsch had died, the courts granted the property to his widow Barbara at a value of $500 as part of her widow’s exemption.

Map of part of the 400 block of High Street in 1897, showing the one-story log house at 433 High and the one-story frame house at 435 High, as well as the two-story brick house at 437 High that was added next to 435 in the 1860s.  From Sanborn Fire Insurance Map.

Today, Peter Bier III would have difficulty recognizing his houses. The one-story log house at 433 High is covered with vinyl siding, and the one-story frame house at 435 High is sheathed in gray form-stone. Both houses have had their original doors, windows, and roofs replaced. Dormers have been replaced or enlarged, and concrete steps now lead up to the front doors. But behind all the modern features, more than 200 years of history lie hidden.

It is my belief that 433 and 435 High Street are the only two houses that survive from the original 25-30 houses built in old Bethelstown between 1762 and 1815. Since Bethelstown preceded the development of the rest of the Hill, these two houses also are the oldest surviving houses on all of Cabbage Hill.

Sometimes a little historical sleuthing can uncover some remarkable stories hiding just behind modern siding and form-stone on the old houses on the Hill.

SoWe Facade Grants and Home Repair Loan Program OPEN!

Lancaster City Alliance is accepting Façade Grant applications from May 1st to June 15th. SoWe residents are eligible to apply for funds to improve the exterior of their homes. This a matching grant; residents and businesses are eligible to receive up to $5,000 per property. For program details and to see if you qualify contact Alex Otthofer at aotthofer@teamlanc.org  or 717.696.6206. Staff is available to assist in English and Spanish.

More information about the Façade Program can be found on our website here

SoWe also offers a low cost, low interest loans for residents to make necessary repairs to their homes through our Home Repair Program. Home Owners are encouraged to apply if they need financial support to make renovations. Applicants are required to find their own contractors. Contact Jake Thorsen if you’re interested in learning more about the program!

Program Guidelines

Emergency Rental Assistance Program

The Emergency Rental Assistance Program is open and eligible households may receive up to 12 months of assistance, including rent, utility, and other housing related costs. This program is in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and aimed to alleviate renters who are struggling from a loss of income.

To find more information about the program and to see if you qualify visit Lancasterhelp.Rent or view the one page info sheets below.

SoWe and its partners are assisting residents to complete their application. If you need assistance or have questions please contact our team to schedule a time to meet.

Available locations for application assistance in SoWe and Lancaster City:

BASE Inc (By appointment)
447 S. Prince Street, Lancaster, PA 17603
Monday – Friday, 9am-5pm
Contact: dmartinez@baseinc.org or 717-742-0115

Bright Side Opportunities Center
515 Hershey Avenue, Lancaster, PA 17603
Bilingual staff available to assist
Hours: By appointment
To contact: 717-509-1342

Community Action Partnership (CAP)
601 S. Queen Street, Lancaster, PA 17603
Bilingual staff able to assist
Hours: Tuesdays & Thursdays, 10am-1pm, 2-4pm, by appointment
To contact: 717-299-7301

Crispus Attucks
407 Howard Avenue, Lancaster, PA 17602
Hours: Mondays, 9am-12pm, 1-5pm, Fridays 9am-12pm, by appointment
To contact: 717-394-6604

Parish Resource Center

Hours: Sunday 5-6pm at Grace Lutheran Church, 517 N. Queen St., Lancaster, PA (Parking lot)
Monday 5-6pm at East Chestnut Street Mennonite Church, 432 E. Chestnut St., Lancaster PA (Front foyer)
Tuesday 5-6pm at Shaarai Shomayim, 75 E. James St., Lancaster, PA (Sidewalk on Duke St.)

To contact: (717) 299-1113 or info@parishresourcecenter.org

Price Elementary
615 Fairview Avenue, Lancaster, PA 17603
Bilingual staff available to assist by appointment
Hours: Monday – Friday, 8:30am-4pm. Evening hours by appointment
To contact: 717-291-6252

SoWe
417 Poplar Street, Lancaster, PA 17603
Bilingual staff able to assist
Hours: By appointment
To contact: 717-669-3633 or lpagan@bgclanc.org

Tabor/LHOP
308 E. King Street, Lancaster, PA 17602
Bilingual staff able to assist
Hours: By appointment
To contact: 717-291-9945 ext. 194 or brivera@lhop.org

Bloomberg Philanthropies Grant Creates Opportunity for Creative Traffic Interventions

The City of Lancaster has been awarded a $25,000 national grant from Bloomberg Philanthropies, in partnership with the SoWe Neighborhood Group and the Lancaster Housing Opportunity Partnership to create a street mural at the intersection of West Strawberry, South Mulberry, and West Vine Streets in the Cabbage Hill neighborhood. Support is also being provided by Sherwin Williams. This project is supported by a grant from the Bloomberg Philanthropies Asphalt Art Initiative which helps cities use art and community engagement to improve street safety and revitalize public space. The focus of the initiative is asphalt art: visual interventions on roadways, pedestrian spaces, and vertical infrastructure. Lancaster is one of 16 cities to receive the grant. 

“To achieve the goals and programs outlined in our Ten-Year Plan for Public Art, we rely on grants like this. The support allows us to work directly with community members to create projects in their neighborhoods. An exciting part of this project is how it puts artists and neighbors together to solve design problems while working together with planners and engineers in our Department of Public Works. ” said Joanna Davis, City of Lancaster Public Art Manager. 

The project is in its early stages and set to develop through the summer of 2021 with the goal to install in early fall.  A steering committee consisting of Cabbage Hill residents, arts professionals and a member of the Public Art Advisory Board has begun to meet. The steering committee will help to move the project along by assisting in community outreach efforts, artist selection, and design review.  

“Public art has many useful definitions, but for our Lancaster community it needs to involve the public. This intersection [project] at Vine, Mulberry and Strawberry is about the decisions and process through which the art will come to be. It’s an exciting time–so get involved and make your voice heard!” said Mimi Shapiro, City of Lancaster resident, artist, and Steering Committee member. 

The artist call can be found here!

The community can send feedback or questions about this project to the project manager Yarlyn Rosario at yrosario@cityoflancasterpa.com.  

For additional information about other projects in the Asphalt Art Initiative, visit, https://asphaltart.bloomberg.org/.   

Welcome Mike Osango

Please join Tabor Community Services, Inc./ Lancaster Housing Opportunity Partnership in giving Mike Osango a warm welcome to the team, as the new SoWe Coordinator. He will focus on the management of special projects, administrative support, as well as communications and marketing for the Tabor/LHOP’s SoWe initiative. Mike is no stranger to the team since he interned with us, while completing his undergraduate work at Millersville University, where he earned a BA in Communications and Business Administration. Most recently Mike worked for PNC Bank. Mike was born in New Jersey and his family is from Africa, where he lived for 10 years before returning to the US. Mike is quadrilingual, and can speak French, English, Spanish, and Lingala. Mike is a new father and loves sports, cars, and helping people, the latter of which he is especially excited to bring to the team.

One-Story Houses on Cabbage Hill

Jim Gerhart, March 2021

They were once the dominant style of house on Cabbage Hill, but now they are far outnumbered by Victorian rowhouses and duplexes. Most have been torn down, and many of the ones that remain have been remodeled and disguised to the point that it’s hard to recognize them anymore. Nevertheless, if you pay attention, you can still see good examples of the original house style of old Cabbage Hill—the small one-story house (also sometimes known as the one-and-a-half-story house).

Before 1750, what would eventually become known as Cabbage Hill had only a few scattered houses and farm buildings, constructed mostly of hand-hewn logs. By 1800, a cluster of houses had been built in Bethelstown—the first two blocks of Manor and High Streets—while the rest of the Hill was still undeveloped. In Bethelstown, in 1800, the number of houses was only about 20, with some made of brick but still mostly of log, and nearly all one-story.

By 1850, Bethelstown had grown to nearly 100 houses, with a few two-story houses appearing but still with mostly one-story houses. Brick was fast becoming the most popular construction material. Shortly after 1850, the rest of the Hill began to be developed, with a mixture of two-story and one-story houses being built, mostly with bricks. By 1875, brick houses were being built by the hundreds all over the Hill, and nearly all of them were larger and of two or three stories. The era of small one-story houses was mostly over, and as they began to age, many were torn down and replaced with the larger, multi-story houses that dominate the Hill today.


The 57 one-story houses on Cabbage Hill today, shown on an 1874 map. 31 single houses are denoted by red circles; 11 house pairs are denoted by yellow circles; and a grouping of four houses is denoted by a black circle.

When the era of small one-story houses ended about 1875, there were about 150 of them on Cabbage Hill, as defined by the area bounded by Manor, West Strawberry, Fremont, and Fairview. By the early 1900s, that number had been reduced to about 120 as some were replaced with larger houses. Today, there are only 57 one-story houses left on the Hill. High Street and Manor Street, which include what used to be old Bethelstown, have the most, with 26 and 16, respectively. St. Joseph (5), Poplar (3), Lafayette (3), Fremont (2), Fairview (1), and West Strawberry (1) don’t have nearly as many. Of the one-story houses that remain, 36 are brick and 21 are wood frame.

Thirty-eight of the 57 remaining one-story houses were built before the Civil War, with 31 of them being built in the 1850s and the other seven in the 1840s or earlier. The great majority of the 38 houses built before the Civil War are in the first two blocks of Manor and High. Another 11 of the remaining one-story houses were built in the 1860s, and eight were built after 1870, including a few as late as the 1880s and 1890s. The great majority of the one-story houses built in the 1860s and later are not on Manor and High, but in surrounding blocks where development was spreading after the Civil War.


637 High Street was built by Frederick Heilman about 1859. Heilman was a weaver as well as a saloonkeeper on South Queen. After his death, when this brick house was advertised for sale in 1883, it was described as having a lot that was 54 feet wide and 226 feet deep, a one-story brick kitchen, a weaving shop, and fruit trees. Today, the house has a new door and windows, and is painted light green, but its basic appearance is pretty much the same as when it was new.

Although all the remaining 57 one-story houses are relatively small, they are not all the same size. The smaller houses have just two bays (a door and one window on the front), with the smallest two-bay houses measuring only about 11 feet wide (412, 545-547, and 549-551 Manor). The larger houses have four bays (a door and three windows on the front), with the largest of these approaching 20 feet wide (416, 539 High). All are at least as deep as they are wide, and some have additions attached to the rear of the house, some of which are original. Square footage ranges from less than 500 to more than 1,000 square feet. Most have two to four rooms on the first floor and one to two rooms in the attic. Even though many families were large, houses did not have to be big in the mid-1800s. Working-class families did not own much furniture or have many personal belongings, and for many, houses were mainly protection from the weather.


459 High Street was built by Xavier Frey about 1849, making it one of the 100 or so houses in Bethelstown in 1850. The original 62-foot wide lot extended to Lafayette Street, before the lot was subdivided both in width and length. The exterior of the wood-frame house has been altered from its original appearance, with a new door, new windows, and a new metal roof. However, it still has old wood siding and shutters.

An interesting feature of the one-story houses on the Hill is the fact that many of them were built as pairs. Twenty-two of the remaining 57 houses are combined in 11 pairs. In most of these pairs, the two houses are symmetrical pairs (mirror images), where the house on each side is the same size but reversed in terms of the location of the front door. In a couple of the pairs, one side is bigger than the other, which makes them asymmetrical. In addition to the 11 pairs, there is one grouping where four houses are grouped into a connected row (548-554 Manor). There are also several instances where one side of an original pair has been converted into a two-story house, in which case the two-story house has not been counted among the 57 remaining houses.

Most of the one-story houses have first floors that were raised above street and sidewalk level. Many are about two feet above street level, and some are three feet or more above. There may be several reasons for this: (1) To minimize excavation; (2) to allow the first floor at the rear of the house to be level with the higher backyard; and (3) to elevate the front door above the dirt roads that would frequently flood and get muddy when it rained.

523 High Street was built by George Hauser about 1847. At more than 1,000 square feet, it is probably one of the largest one-story houses still standing on the Hill. Hauser died shortly after building the house; his widow Catharine lived here for 25 years after his death. This frame house was built before any semblance of a real street was present, and it turned out to be set farther back from the completed street than the later houses around it.

Nearly all of the remaining 57 one-story houses have been altered over the years. Some have had dormers added and some have had their original dormers enlarged. Some of the brick houses have had their brick painted. Many of the houses, both brick and frame, have been sheathed in aluminum or vinyl siding, and a fair number have had form-stone installed on their front sides. Most have had their original doors and windows replaced, and some have had front porches added. Nearly all of them have had their original roofs—wood or slate shingles—replaced with composition shingles or metal. Despite the alterations to most of the houses, several have retained most of their original character and no doubt look much the same as they did a century or more ago.

549-551 Manor Street was built by John Campbell about 1850. The small two-bay brick houses are a symmetrical pair. The house on the left (551) looks somewhat the same as it would have in 1850, excepting the new door, window, and roof, and the paint color. The house on the right (549) has a new door, window, and roof, as well as an enlarged dormer. Campbell also built the identical pair of houses to the right in 1850. At one time, the Campbell family owned about 300 feet of frontage along the northwest side of Manor Street.

The 57 remaining one-story houses on Cabbage Hill are the survivors of a much larger population of such houses on the Hill. Most of the survivors have seen more than ten owners and dozens of different tenants, and some have undergone numerous and sometimes major alterations, both externally and internally. But even with all the changes, it is still possible to look at these houses today and imagine how the Hill must have looked in its very early years, when only widely-spaced houses like these were present. These early one-story houses are valuable in a historic sense, and they deserve to be respected by their landlords and tenants. It is important to make sure these old houses continue to survive as picturesque reminders of old Cabbage Hill.

412-414 Manor Street was built about 1842 by George Hartman. This pair of brick houses is an asymmetrical pair, with a two-bay house on the left and a three-bay house on the right. The Henry Buckius family lived in the larger house for 50 years starting in 1861, while Henry operated a cobbler shop out of the smaller house. The first Sunday school of Christ Lutheran Church was held here in 1867. The lower photo of the same two houses was taken about 1907.

Note: Once research facilities open up again, I will nail down a few loose ends and post a complete list of all 57 one-story houses on the Hill, along with dates of construction, builders’ names, and primary early owners.